Pharmaceutical Regulation in the United States: A Confluence of Influences
Pharmaceuticals, like other consumer products distributed in the United States, are subject to regulation and scrutiny from multiple sources. Legislative oversight and statutory pronouncement, regulatory mandate and oversight, judicial review, and non-governmental organization (NGO) and media oversight directly and/or indirectly impact the conduct of pharmaceutical manufacturers. In addition, stakeholders including pharmaceutical company shareholders, employees of pharmaceutical companies, and those entities that ultimately bear the costs of paying for drugs – known as third-party payors –also influence the conduct of drug manufacturers.
For example, the securities markets that price stock rely, in part, on representations that drug companies make about the integrity of their products. Public misrepresentations to regulatory bodies and/or consumers also play out indirectly as misrepresentations to shareholders resulting in additional liability for companies and those individuals who run them. Accordingly, shareholders – the owners of the pharmaceutical companies – have an interest in ensuring not only the integrity of products sold to consumers, but the integrity of public statements about their products.
Through their retirement plans, Pharmaceutical Regulation in the United States: A Confluence of Influences1 pharmaceutical company employees invest in their employer and, to some degree, stand in the same shoes as shareholders except that they have rights of redress under United States Pension laws. Product recalls result in diminished stock value and lost savings for employees who invest in their companies.
Third-party payors, including labor union health and welfare funds, State Medicaid and employee health and welfare funds, and the federal Medicare system, have also had an immense impact with regard to the conduct of the pharmaceutical industry.
To say that any one of these influences is the real source of regulation would paint an incomplete picture. It is the totality of these influences, and their interplay with each other, that either impact or have the potential to impact manufacturer conduct.
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