Arbitrary application of law in a global economy
by Reuben A. Guttman. Guttman practices law with Guttman, Buschner & Brooks PLLC
There are more than 3,000 drug trials being conducted in China. Indeed, data from these trials is almost certain to find its way into applications filed back in the United States with the Food and Drug Administration.
Do large drug companies – which trade on U.S. domestic securities exchanges – accurately report complete information about drug trials conducted in China? Or do language barriers and cultural differences make it difficult – if not impossible – to secure unbiased results from these trials? Understanding that concepts imbedded in the western rule of law, including “conflict of interest,” “kick back,” and “independence,” may have different meanings elsewhere is crucial to understanding the magnitude of the problem, and we have no way of answering these questions with complete certainty.
The scary part is that our regulators – including the SEC, the FDA and the EPA – are so woefully understaffed that they lack the resources to fully enforce compliance in the United States, let alone on a global scale.
In a global economy, understanding and investigating conduct abroad is essential to domestic compliance enforcement. But triple the staff of domestic compliance enforcement agencies, and there still would not be enough government officials to enforce compliance in a global economy.
The truth is that since the founding of our republic, we have recognized that compliance enforcement cannot be left solely in the hands of government regulators. Compliance with our most fundamental constitutional protections, including the landmark decisions in Brown v Board of Education and New York Times v. Sullivan, have been accomplished through private party litigation — not government enforcement actions.
Our environmental, antitrust, and civil rights laws have specific provisions allowing private citizens to bring enforcement actions. Our laws are constructed this way because we as a nation understand that substantive law absent an ability to enforce compliance is meaningless. To have an enumerated right or privilege that cannot be protected or secured is the same as having no right or privilege at all. To ensure compliance enforcement, we have created mechanisms that leverage our abilities so that culprits understand that being caught and sanctioned is more than a mere theoretical possibility. Indeed, Congress has passed laws, including the False Claims Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, that reward whistleblowers who bring to the government information about conduct that causes the wrongful payment of government monies and that lead to a recovery.
These laws tap the technical, cultural, and even language expertise of whistleblowers on both a domestic and global scale. In 2001, a German citizen named Kurt Bunk brought suit under the False Claims Act in a federal court in Virginia against freight companies engaging in a conspiracy – conceived in Europe – to elevate the cost of shipping services sold to the U.S. military. The case resulted in the recovery of millions of dollars to the U.S. Treasury. While not a U.S. citizen, Bunk’s expertise in the shipping industry, his knowledge of the German language, his ability to review thousands of documents written in German, and his account of facts necessary to prove the wrongful conduct were essential to a domestic compliance effort.
It would seem obvious that individuals who participate in compliance enforcement that benefits U.S. citizens or U.S. regulatory agencies should minimally receive protection in our courts. At a time when our State Department spends millions of dollars abroad extolling the virtues of U.S. “rule of law,” it would be ironic that a foreign citizen who aids in the enforcement of our laws would not be extended protection by our courts against retaliation. Yet, that is exactly what happened recently to Liu Meng-Lin, a citizen of Taiwan and a compliance officer for the healthcare division of Siemens China, Ltd.
According to a lawsuit Liu filed in a New York federal court, he discovered that Siemens employees were indirectly making improper payments to officials in North Korea and China in connection with the sale of medical equipment to those countries. Liu complained internally, and was terminated, whereupon he reported to the SEC that Siemens had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act – an Act that prohibits companies that trade stock on U.S. exchanges from making payments to foreign officials to secure business. Liu also alleged that Siemens had violated Dodd Frank’s anti-retaliation provisions.
The federal court dismissed Liu’s case, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit recently sustained that decision, refusing “extraterritorial” enforcement of the Dodd Frank anti-retaliation proscriptions. The Second Circuit found it of no consequence that Siemens trades its stock on U.S. exchanges – and presumably to U.S. purchasers – or that Liu may be entitled to a bounty from the SEC if the agency successfully pursues Siemens for FCPA violations. The Court justified its holding by maintaining that there is a presumption against extraterritorial application of a law where there is no clear congressional intent to do so.
Really? In a global economy where the court conceded that Liu might actually be entitled to a monetary award from the SEC?
There’s another irony: At a time when large corporations through the U.S. Chamber of Commerce are maintaining that whistleblowers should report their grievances to internal compliance personnel before going to regulatory bodies, a big publicly traded company has established – at least in one court – that foreigners have no rights of redress in U.S. courts if their internal disclosure results in retaliation.
Regardless of whether the Second Circuit is correct in its analysis, its decision is a blow to whistleblower programs essential to enforcement of laws that, at the very least, protect those who reside within our domestic boundaries. If the Second Circuit is correct that Congress was not clear in its intent to protect foreigners who help in the enforcement of domestic laws, it is time for Congress to speak up.